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Tuesday, 25 September 2018

Need of Indian Broadband and where the future lies?

Just a couple of years back when reliance jio debuted into Indian telecom scenario with LTE offerings, things went into surprises for the end users, not only commercial surprises like free offerings, in fact that was more surprising for incumbents, but the power of data rates that LTE offers. As people who were not accustomed to application like skype etc, first time saw video calls with their handsets, and could see their near and dear far apart over a video on their hand sets. It was all exhilarating and exciting with boost of free data available to use. The most admiring part of the story remains that Jio's gigantic plan taken the Indian telecom into next phase.

As we know that technologies are continuously evolving, not only those which transmitting data, but those too, generating or devouring data. So there is increase in demand as well as supply and intermediaries are coping with that too. In a comprehensive end to end view it's about whole ecosystem has emerged to create new services and infrastructures to deliver more surprises, nevertheless to say that application like AR/VR and Autonomous vehicles and many such will keep the end user into an awe, in coming time.

The core of this all lies at ICT, as the new phase of ICT is being taken with the notion of Industry 4.0, and reach of the ICT lies with Access of Broadband, notwithstanding be it wireless or wireline, that's the commercial things.

Indian Perspectives…..

Broadband in India has not yet been taken seriously, in sense of social empowerment and access of remote and last connect to main stream. Reliance jio came with LTE as an telecom unicron, as India is a mass market and whole world is moving to mass market instead, gone are days where industries used to capture market of elites.

The success of reliance lies on the fact of its understanding of Indian market and plan the things big -- covering the whole gamut. Like not only providing network services and infrastructure but also enabling the common man to access it through free data and cheap mobile handsets. Moreover, not exaggerating by the understanding that nothing is actually free, Indian public can be utilized well for heavy load testing - so instead of circulating test phones to enterprise work force, why not to people itself for free, an another aspect to see reliance wisdom.

But the question is not to set up an incumbent here but the social reform, as Govt regulatory organizations are also of the mindset to set up the incumbents only, completely overlooking power of ICT and most importantly broadband. The data rates and call drop issues are crippling the real power of ICT and handicapping it without right kind of regulation and control over the services, which breaks the reliability and sustainability with the trust for new kind of services.

Leveraging Govt Infra……

The Govt initiatives like "BharatNet",  is about providing information highways through fiber network across the country, and also like Digital India, Make-in-India etc to create a whole ecosystem, are viable ingredients. 5G from Govt has been put to adapt the technology at large scale, DOT is setting a test bed for incubating it. These are no doubt encouraging and remarkable moves and yielding the outcome as well, but more is there needed to be done.

As optical network through "BharatNet" is proving a good infrastructure for backhaul connectivity to last mile access, there are other options being and would be explored too. Recently Reliance jio tied up with Hughes satellite systems to use their satellite to provide backhaul connectivity to last mile LTE access at remote part of India.

The Project like "BharatNet" is the most important one to set the base or minimum viable infrastructure for India broadband, though focus must move on satellite or other technologies too. The Forums like BIF (Broadband India Forum) has been catalyzing for the use of satellite backhaul. This is encouraging new entrepreneurs to come up. In recent time, like in a year or two, its being closely observed that some businesses are being cropping up based on such infra and also being felicitated by cheap china supplier for their fulfillments.

Leveraging WiFi ……

In this new breed of last mile access providers, WiFi has emerged as prominent technology, with ease of deployment and low cost of management. We have seen many retail like business mushrooming, not only in rural but in urban India too. So there are not incumbents like Reliance Jio but also the people in the propensity of grocery or garment businesses taking advantage of Indian perspective for their greedy gains in all their capacity.

Indian perspective is not mature enough to differentiate the data, As we are habitual to go with the loose control services so there is less viability, at least in current scenarios, for strict data classification, a fast internet is enough to deliver almost all the contemporary services with manageable user experiences.

WiFi Security, in specific, and network security in general are something of paramount importance, but that is not much in consideration with the network service providers as their prominent motto is gain the business, and also the general public is not conscious of the security on their network. This is not only from the point of view of ignorance of consumers but our social behavioral traits too, as we have not been part of World War one or two.

So, where the future lies?

Future lies with us, WiFi is a technology, has been deeply rooted and well being there, not only coping and sustaining with other wireless access technologies but beating them too. WiFi is existing standards of 802.11ac and upcoming 802.11ax are quite sufficiently empowered to fulfill Indian broadband perspective well in advance till the 5G takes its foot prints. Even if the giants has its focus on 5G its going to be FWA cases in recent times and fulfill the backhaul requirements, in addition to fiber and satellite.

WiFi has the power to fulfill not only broadband requirements but also IOT and IIOT specific requirements too. Therefore WiFi in Indian as well as many Asian perspectives is a holy grail.

Therefore Thinking of WiFi is not about providing few meagre objectives like bringing employments in form of retail business, or providing a connectivity for common services through PDO or CSC, but need a BiG Idea to invest and deliver a country wide side by side associative and affordable connectivity for Broadband Access to unconnected or to Bring the remote to main stream…..It's not a technical challenge it's a will to bring social impact….deliver WiFi in right way with right business cases in comprehensive and coordinated way.

There must be industry associations or right forums to come forward for the kind of initiatives, TRAI's PDO is not going to create the required framework, there need to be an integrated solutions with a Big Idea.


Saurabh Verma
Consultant & Founder
Fundarc Communication (xgnlab)
Noida, India - 201301
M:7838962939/9654235169
saurabhverma@xgnlab.com
www.xgnlab.com



Friday, 24 August 2018

Where is the EDGE?


Where is the edge?




The most budging term in telecom or IT industry today is “EDGE”. In fact there are two notions on the fore one is “edge computing” and other is “fog computing”, both are about bringing the cloud near the point of action. Essentially it’s a cloud computing, a freak of virtualization at front of access.
The need of “edge computing” or “fog computing” has been attributed to “real time” or “low latency” approaches, i.e. process the data at the point or near the point where it is being generated and produce the result for real time action.

Whereas Fog is much on the point of data generation, the edge computing is a centralized or aggregated stuff, at the nearest possible point of access. Therefore fog is much about a flat distributed system but edge is little different through the notion of “edge”.
I don’t want to jump into hardcore technicality with these stuffs, as there would be specifics but essentially it about virtualization at different points in end to end construct. My idea is finding the edge.

“Edge”, as per vendors, is something about hierarchical distribution of certain functionalities in E2E construct. “Edge” is something creates a moat for innovation. I don’t differ with vendors but I feel that edge disrupt the very nature of cloud services too, it’s about providing cloud services with specific needs, different KPIs and SLAs, rather more customized. I am here referring to public cloud as my thought and intention of putting my idea is around that’s only.

So “edge” disrupts the cloud in sense of not only providing a back office or central office work but distribute the work at different level, in terms of SLA and KPIs. Think about the OTT services, the players started them with much turbulence but not only settled but dominated. Edge is in that sense the gate through cloud for many of service creations for small players.

So, don't just confine to architectural adherence from the vendors for creating the edge, there are many possibilities to find your own edge and provide the service.

“A Big idea for small players”

If make sense…….
Talk to us contact@xgnlab.com


Tuesday, 21 August 2018

5G appraoch, where rubber touches the road -Cloud-native approach necessary to deal with complexity of 5G


5G will eventually require a fully virtualized, software-controlled network in order to automate the complexity of network management and service delivery. Although we’re not there yet, test and proofs-of-concept like Deutsche Telekom and Hewlett Packard Enterprise’s (HPE) work to deploy virtual network functions (VNFs) in a cloud-native shared data environment (SDE) is indicative of the progress toward zero-touch networks.

5G will encompass a huge variety of types of traffic, meaning networks need to be architected for flexibility. The three primary 5G use cases are enhanced mobile broadband, massive machine-type communications and ultra reliable low latency communications. Running the gamut from high-bandwidth activities like virtual reality to low-intensity, intermittent communications from connected sensors.

Sven Langer, DT’s senior core network architect, said the proof-of-concept “allowed a rapid and smooth integration with 3rd-party VNFs” and showed a response time around 1 millisecond,” which “provide[s]an excellent basis for cloud-native network functions to externally store all data, especially dynamic context data that allows seamless failovers and improves the customer experience.

HPE’s Dave Sliter highlight the challenges service providers will face with the move to 5G and the new types of services it enables. “Adoption of 5G technology,” he said, “introduces major operational and financial challenges. HPE Shared Data Environment is an essential enabler for this transformation and reduces these risks.”


get more detail HERE

Thursday, 9 August 2018

Is 5G really so hard to break?


5G is not a nut at all like previous Gs. 5G is a re-imagination, paradigm shifts and new vision to accommodate certain advancements on radio and core network technologies, like massive MIMO, SDN/NFV, VNF/Cloud and MEC. 5G is also about upcoming use cases and capability & flexibility provided for them like IOT, Network Slicing or Application defined networking.

By and large it’s an end-to-end overhauling with new instruments to existing networks, which may be of concern for many reason, that need a transformational approach. As VNF and Cloud are most obvious tools to take up the necessary load of new functionality, MEC at the RAN level will be pivotal to discriminate the service logics and catalyze the application specific requirements fulfillment.

The transformation is going to shape-in with the shift in architectural paradigms to more hybrid or heterogeneous approaches and also leveraging the virtualization to accommodate variety of applications and use cases like for massive IOT, public safety, HD  video, mission critical i.e. latency sensitive applications.

Mobile edge computing abbreviated as MEC is about the cloud at edge or may be related to new term called as fog computing which is about putting many of RAN specific functionalities on virtual systems which are adaptive to load and computational requirements. MEC will help to provide right orchestration for VNF kind of architecture need for End to End networking, in term of network operation and performance optimization. MEC is best for the uses cases like for content management networks, latency sensitive applications, massive access management etc.

Virtualization is the kingpin in whole 5G conception as the required flexibility of the systems and network can be provided through it and that help to accommodate the application specific configuration with the term that provide end to end re-construction i.e. it is all about network slicing. Network slicing can also be envisaged as application defined networking that is about ad-hoc re-deployment or re-configuring network in line to the specific application requirements.  As per the 5G specification, this re-deployment time is not in days but in minutes and saying precisely it is 90 minutes only.



Monday, 6 August 2018

Thought to write on 5G again, Allusive or Ellusive?



Thought to write on 5G again, as 5G is still elusive in talk and discussion. 5G is a re-imagination, paradigm shifts and new vision to accommodate certain advancements on radio and core network technologies, like massive MIMO, SDN/NFV, VNF/Cloud and MEC. 5G is also about upcoming use cases and capability & flexibility provided for them like IOT, Network Slicing or Application defined networking.
By and large it’s an end-to-end overhauling with new instruments to existing networks, which may be of concern for many reason, that need a transformational approach. As VNF and Cloud are most obvious tools to take up the necessary load of new functionality, MEC at the RAN level will be pivotal to discriminate the service logics and catalyze the application specific requirements fulfillment.
The transformation is going to shape-in with the shift in architectural paradigms to more hybrid or heterogeneous approaches and also leveraging the virtualization to accommodate variety of applications and use cases like for massive IOT, public safety, HD  video, mission critical i.e. latency sensitive applications.

Mobile edge computing abbreviated as MEC is about the cloud at edge or may be related to new term called as fog computing which is about putting many of RAN specific functionalities on virtual systems which are adaptive to load and computational requirements. MEC will help to provide right orchestration for VNF kind of architecture need for End to End networking, in term of network operation and performance optimization. MEC is best for the uses cases like for content management networks, latency sensitive applications, massive access management etc.
Virtualization is the kingpin in whole 5G conception as the required flexibility of the systems and network can be provided through it and that help to accommodate the application specific configuration with the term that provide end to end re-construction i.e. it is all about network slicing. Network slicing can also be envisaged as application defined networking that is about ad-hoc re-deployment or re-configuring network in line to the specific application requirements.  As per the 5G specification, this re-deployment time is not in days but in minutes and saying precisely it is 90 minutes only.

Sunday, 5 August 2018

Operational Imperative for 5G - A Report from TM Forum on 5G Monetization

Operational Imperatives for 5G - A Report from TM Forum




Thursday, 2 August 2018

Is WiFi, 5G?


Many hardcore WiFi evangelist seems to be in cribbing moods while associating WiFi with 5G. Or may be they want to hijack the buzz around 5G for wifi in this way, as WiFi has taken its own stride silently.  WiFi is not 5G, damn clear is this fact, more than that only 5G NR is not 5G. WiFi is altogether different ecosystem, standards development etc.
WiFi has been always relevant and deeply rooted in terms of internet access, also has got significant improvements in standards coping with time, 802.11 n, ac , ax. 5G emerged as utopian kind mobile technology, providing things what the different application want, with necessary capacity and efficiency. Therefore 5G comprises all the advancement in technological space, in computing and communication, like MIMO, Cloud, MEC, SDN, VNF etc. WiFi is one candidate there but a major one (complimentary) with advancement of 802.11ax, to achieve 5G objectives.

Infact we must understand that first standards of 5G through 3GPP release 15 was on 'Non Stand Alone', so called NSA mode. That's about taking 5G NR as associated radio in LTE control network. In true sense on LTE network with a data pipe of NR, Same could be done with any other radio, whether it be WiFi.

WiFi is much mature than NR, which is there taken for FWS only, WiFi has been there since ages as a synonyms of internet connectivity. So where comes a data pipe requirement WiFi is sufficient for multiple or many applications.

Also 5G is about use cases, a technology that will cater almost all the industry for connectivity point of view so akin to accommodate almost all the relevant radio technologies of caliber, we all are aware of some thing called network slicing, WiFi lies on prominent place there.

WiFi essentially a complimentary technology, in light of 5G, and to utter surprise it will be more prominent in 'Stand Alone", so called SA mode of 5G, where LTE will be out and it will be pure 5G network with SOA architectured 5G Core.


Sunday, 29 July 2018

"A tryst with Industry 4.0" - Telefonica UK calls on FTSE bosses to participate in O2 5G Testbed trials.


Telefónica UK Limited ("O2") today has written to every Chief Executive of companies in the FTSE 100 Index to invite them to participate in O2's 5G Testbed trials, ahead of the UK's expected 5G launch from 2020. 
The call for applications was today made by Mark Evans, O2's CEO. We "Fundarc-comm (xgnlab) termed this initiative "A tryst with Industry 4.0". Very intelligent and prudential move from telefonica, setting the larger perspective and truly in interest of 5G.
Under the ground-breaking 5G commitment, O2 aims to work with a number of FTSE 100 businesses to understand the processes and use cases that would benefit from 5G. 
Apart from benefiting 5G development, this would range from improving efficiencies in supply chains and production processes to unlocking new 5G enabled revenue streams and enhancing customer experience.
The commitment comes as O2 states its belief in 5G 'to transform every corner of life and society' whilst making it accessible for businesses and consumers alike.
Derek McManus, who has overseen the introduction of both 3G and 4G throughout his career as O2's Chief Operations Officer, said: "5G is a brilliant way for the UK to turn promise into
progress. This nation will thrive on the potential power of 5G."
O2, is the UK's principle campaigner for Mobile Britain. Speaking of the 5G opportunity, Mark Evans said: "Mobile, and specifically 5G, is one of the UK's most powerful opportunities to strengthen our economy, enrich our society and outperform on the global stage. Our national Testbed commitment is testament to this belief and we are excited by the value it could create for UK Plc."
The FTSE 100 businesses will need to express their interest by September 2018 and meet certain qualifying criteria to be considered for the opportunity.

--
Saurabh Verma
Chief Tech Consultant & Founder
Fundarc Communication (xgnlab)
Noida, India - 201301
M:+91-7838962939/9654235169

Do We know that 5G is about 10Tbps/Km2 volume density?



The emergence of smallcells, being the enablers, has taken a mandatory part in network architecture. From an operator point of view, smallcells were taken in network deployment scenarios for better spectrum re-usability and drawing more bits per unit of frequency. 

The main forces for emergence of smallcells were capacity enhancements, coverage solutions, and spectrum efficiency through its re-usability. Within 4G itself, the technology has evolved to support the densification of smallcell networks through evolved interference management techniques like eICIC or FeICIC, self-organizing techniques know as SON etc, and also the SON advancement techniques based on predictive analysis like robust mobility etc.

5G is towards ultra-dense networks to cater to the need of high data volume as targeted in the range of 10Tbps/Km2. Highly dense smallcells, better to say here access point or AP, covering a cell area in the range of only few meters, would be exaggerating the challenges of interference management and robust mobility management. 

The techniques used for densification at LTE advance level, would not be fitting, rather it would be handled through novel techniques like Cell virtualization for robust and efficient mobility, and also for interference management through resource distribution.

The formation of virtual cells is a dynamic process here, and would be user centric. Each virtual cell will be constituted of a master AP and one or more slave APs. The master will be at the helm of control at each virtual cell and would be coordinating to each other, i.e. coordination between masters of each virtual cells for handover etc. 

Also the channels used for coordination among master APs would again be on the self-created backhaul over the air only. The techniques like beam forming & nulling, Massive MiMo,mmWave for better penetration and higher throughput would take their course in the overall ultra-densification of networks.




Wednesday, 25 July 2018

Landscape of Mobile Spectrum.

Mobile Spectrum Across the Globe 

Why confused over IOT? Go through 3GPP standards terms and understanding.

Thought to put about 3GPP IOT specs, good for revision and understanding of terminology behind technology.

Tuesday, 10 July 2018

From MEC to MAEC a forsighted ETSI vision or rethinking?



MEC, known as Mobile Edge Computing has come up in mainstream, when ETSI started working on it with an ISG (Industry Standard Group) formation. The whole concept has started with the incorporation of cloud computing in 3GPP network architecture, with some of architecture network function being transferred to cloud computing environment and there were conspicuous impact of transportation delays among network functions. ETSI got a foresighted vision of putting some of cloud computing functionality near the system, much in the propensity of edge of the network to provide delay sensitive or first respondent kind of functionality in close proximity. This whole thinking brought up edge computing ushering in the whole network end to end architecture in 3GPP network, specifically focused to LTE adv or LTE adv pro, in recent time.
In early stages of technology adaptation the major impact on 3GPP networks came on radio access networks and concept of C-RAN has been the prominent outcome in industry, where most or much affable RAN functionality was put over edge computing and radio front end is kept as bare metal as possible. This also brought up front haul in consideration while defining and deploying such architectures.


In 2016 ETSI re-evaluated the importance of MEC and asked its ISG to extend it work for two more years to assess the Edge computing, in its applicability not only to 3GPP but also to other access technologies, not limited to wireless but in area of wireline too. This also forced ETSI to redefine and re-name it as "Multi Access Edge Computing" or MAEC, which going to cater multi access technologies and their functionalities on edge. Also in line of having MAEC role in End-to-End architecture, even the core network functionalities are also being thought of, to bring and coordinate within the edge.


Industry has widely accepted the MAEC, and with the most buzzing 5G now days, it is being taken as a prominent player in defining and deploying next gen mobile network architecture.

Will come with our white paper on it soon…with notion  "MAEC impact"……….just wait.

Mobile Edge Computing - what it is?




References
  1. ETSI MEC ISG, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Framework and reference architecture," ETSI, DGS MEC 003, April 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/003/01.01.01_60/gs_MEC003v010101p.pdf
  2. ETSI NFV ISG, "Network Functions Virtualisation (NFV); Architectural Framework," ETSI, DGS NFV 002, December 2014.
  3. ETSI MEC ISG, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); General principles for Mobile Edge Service APIs," ETSI, DGS MEC 009, July 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/009/01.01.01_60/gs_MEC009v010101p.pdf
  4. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Radio Network Information API," ETSI, DGS MEC 012, July 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/012/01.01.01_60/gs_MEC012v010101p.pdf
  5. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Location API," ETSI, DGS MEC 013, July 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/013/01.01.01_60/gs_MEC013v010101p.pdf
  6. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Bandwidth Management API," ETSI, DGS MEC 015, October 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/015/01.01.01_60/gs_mec015v010101p.pdf
  7. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Mobile Edge Platform Application Enablement," ETSI, DGS MEC 011, July 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/011/01.01.01_60/gs_MEC011v010101p.pdf
  8. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Mobile Edge Management; Part 1: System, host and platform management," ETSI, DGS MEC 010-1, October 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/01001/01.01.01_60/gs_mec01001v010101p.pdf
  9. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); Mobile Edge Management; Part 2: Application lifecycle, rules and requirements management," ETSI, DGS MEC 010-2, July 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/01002/01.01.01_60/gs_MEC01002v010101p.pdf
  10. ——, "Mobile Edge Computing (MEC); UE application interface," ETSI, DGS MEC 016, September 2017. [Online]. Available: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_gs/MEC/001_099/016/01.01.01_60/gs_mec016v010101p.pdf

Monday, 9 July 2018

What's about Blockchain? An introductory feat.

From Techopedia - An Introduction to Blockchain.



What is Blockchain.

Blockchain is a distributed digital ledger. It is an official record-keeper that can be used to verify data transactions over time in a way that is both open and virtually unbreakable. It works by recording transactions (blocks) on multiple specialized servers around the world, creating a distributed record of transactions (the chain) that can be verified against one another to determine authenticity. The only way to tamper with a blockchain is to break into every server containing a copy of the chain at once – not an impossible feat, but extraordinarily difficult for even the most sophisticated hacker.

One for All


Blockchain’s potential for electronic commerce is profound, says Computerworld’s Lucas Meerian, and not just for digital currencies like bitcoin, which were the first to make use of it. Currently, most records, financial or otherwise, are kept on privately-owned databases, and outsiders looking to update them, such as a retailer, must pay for access. Blockchain is a peer-to-peer network that is owned by no one and is accessible by all, so right off the bat it has the potential to dramatically lower the cost of doing business. It is also self-regulating and self-managing, essentially giving users the ability to manage their own digital records, not the banks, credit card companies or the government. (To learn more about blockchain's use in bitcoin, see How the Bitcoin Protocol Actually Works.)
But blockchain can be applied to far more than just financial transactions. Any digital exchange that requires a trusted version of past exchanges can benefit, including medical records, inventory management, real estate filings and legal documentation. Virtually any industry can leverage blockchain in a wide variety of ways, eliminating paperwork, lessening their management overhead and, according to Accenture, reduce data infrastructure by 30 percent, representing billions of dollars in annual cost savings.


Companies like Earnst & Young are at the forefront of integrating blockchain into mainstream enterprise applications, says Bitcoin Magazine’s Michael Scott. The firm’s EY Ops program is working with collaborators to insert the technology into supply chain management, billing and payments, and a range of other functions where broad visibility into complex relationships is crucial. The company recently opened a Blockchain Lab in New York, where it is developing cryptography, physics and other solutions in conjunction with existing centers in London and Trivandrum, India.

Causes for Concern

Still, if blockchain is this good, why hasn’t it taken the world by storm? What’s the downside?
Alex Jablokow, of software development firm PTC, says one of the more significant challenges facing blockchain is scale. Even though its use is already widespread, it still accounts for only a tiny fraction of the worldwide data load, which itself is about to explode due to big data and the internet of things (IoT). The more blockchain scales, the more resources it will require for encryption, storage and other functions. Already, an average bitcoin blockchain is around 100 GB, and given the right conditions, computational requirements for activities like bitcoin mining can impose significant burdens on local infrastructure.

As well, blockchain utilizes a timed refresh cycle that helps to ensure there are no variants in the system. For bitcoin, this is set at 10 minutes, but the cycle will have to become much shorter as the internet of things ramps up, perhaps down to the sub-millisecond level, which will fuel significantly greater resource consumption.
But how, exactly, should the enterprise implement blockchain? As an open-sourcesolution, it is available in a variety of community-based and industry solutions, each of which targets a specific set of use cases or capabilities, says Enterprise Times’ Charles Brett.
The Linux Foundation hosts and initiative called Hyperledger that provides an enterprise-grade framework and code base. IBM is currently building its blockchain portfolio, dubbed IBM Blockchain, around Hyperledger, most recently releasing a blockchain as a service (BCaaS) offering using the Hyperledger Fabric project designed for deployment on modular architectures.
Another option is called Quorum, devised by J.P. Morgan and Eurotech to leverage a version of blockchain called Ethereum to target high-speed transactions. The system is geared toward private networks with known, permissioned participants, most likely involving complex settlement processes like lines of credit. (For more on blockchain, see How Blockchain Can Impact Digital Business.)

Editable Blockchain?


Meanwhile, Accenture is working on an editable version of blockchain that would allow a central administrator to make changes to existing chains, provided a series of preconditions are met. This naturally raises some eyebrows given that a built-in ability to alter past records broadens the potential for fraud and abuse.
And Microsoft is currently working on Project Bletchley, an Ethereum-based BCaaS solution for the Azure cloud. The aim is to provide a common middleware between disparate sources that provide an added level of trust during the transaction process.
Blockchain’s raison d’etre is to provide a high degree of trust in complex data environments. But as a new technology, it has yet to earn that trust. The IT industry has a long history of becoming intrigued by tools and technology that purport to be dramatically better than the status quo, while at the same time remaining highly suspicious of anything new.
Blockchain is currently on the radar at most enterprises, but it will take some time, and a rock-solid performance record, for it to make a meaningful contribution to enterprise data operations.


Friday, 6 July 2018

3 points strategy for operators to move for 5G.

  • Ø Gigabit LTE and WiFi 802.11 ax can do much better, specifically for Asian market, rather having immediate focus on #5G.
    • ABI Research forecasts LTE will grow from approximately 30% of global mobile subscriptions in 2017 to 50% in 2024. The most advanced LTE service, Gigabit LTE, is expected to near two million subscriptions globally in 2017, which is less than 5% of LTE Advanced Pro subscriptions in 2017. Gigabit LTE devices, launched in 2017, will far exceed the subscription numbers, as few cell sites are expected to reach Gigabit LTE speeds in 2017. Gigabit LTE is a pivotal piece of an advanced 4G mobile network that can support an operator’s mobile service goals over the next six to eight years and beyond. “Gigabit LTE is a specific configuration of the LTE Advanced Pro standard and is expected to account for 70% of LTE Advanced Pro subscriptions by 2026,” says Prayerna Raina, Senior Analyst at ABI Research.  
    • http://fundarc-comm.xgnlab.com/2017/06/gigabit-lte-is-expected-to-account-for.html
  • Ø Before jumping to #5G, focus on core, slicing, operation & management and orchestration capabilities.
  • Ø NSA mode is for good beginning to incorporate #5G, A large scale convergence will be there...that's means multiple technology at access and unified core.
  • ....in time
  • SA mode emerge to change the paradigm of cellular completely.... note it. its gonna take long time for cellular services but may come for FWA cases in recent time.



-

3GPP- 5G Network Slicing Requirements.

5G networks and network slicing

Management and orchestration of 5G networks and network slicing is a feature that includes the following work items: management concept and architecture, provisioning, network resource model, fault supervision, assurance and performance management, trace management and virtualization management aspects. With the output of these work items, SA5 provides specified management interfaces in support of 5G networks and network slicing. An operator can configure and manage the mobile network to support various types of services enabled by 5G, for example eMBB (enhanced Mobile Broadband) and URLLC (Ultra-Reliable and Low Latency Communications), depending on the different customers’ needs. The management concept, architecture and provisioning are being defined in TS 28.53028.53128.532 and 28.533
Network slicing is seen as one of the key features for 5G, allowing vertical industries to take advantage of 5G networks and services. 3GPP SA5 adopts the network slice concept as defined in SA2 and addresses the management aspects. Network slicing is about transforming a PLMN from a single network to a network where logical partitions are created, with appropriate network isolation, resources, optimized topology and specific configuration to serve various service requirements.
As an example, a variety of communication service instances provided by multiple Network Slice Instances (NSIs) are illustrated in the figure below. The different parts of an NSI are grouped as Network Slice Subnets (e.g. RAN, 5GC and Transport) allowing the lifecycle of a Network Slice Subnet Instance (NSSI) to be managed independently from the lifecycle of an NSI.
2018 03 SA5 002 kf

Provisioning of network slice instances

The management aspects of a network slice instance can be described by the four phases:
1) Preparation: in the preparation phase the network slice instance does not exist. The preparation phase includes network slice template design, network slice capacity planning, on-boarding and evaluation of the network slice requirements, preparing the network environment and other necessary preparations required to be done before the creation of a network slice instance.
2) Commissioning: provisioning in the commissioning phase includes creation of the network slice instance. During network slice instance creation all needed resources are allocated and configured to satisfy the network slice requirements. The creation of a network slice instance can include creation and/or modification of the network slice instance constituents.
3) Operation: includes the activation, supervision, performance reporting (e.g. for KPI monitoring), resource capacity planning, modification, and de-activation of a network slice instance. Provisioning in the operation phase involves activation, modification and de-activation of a network slice instance.
4) Decommissioning: network slice instance provisioning in the decommissioning phase includes decommissioning of non-shared constituents if required and removing the network slice instance specific configuration from the shared constituents. After the decommissioning phase, the network slice instance is terminated and does not exist anymore.
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Similarly, provisioning for a network slice subnet instance (NSSI) includes the following operations:
  • Create an NSSI;
  • Activate an NSSI;
  • De-active an NSSI;
  • Modify an NSSI;
  • Terminate an NSSI.

Roles related to 5G networks and network slicing

The roles related to 5G networks and network slicing management include: Communication Service Customer, Communication Service Provider (CSP), Network Operator (NOP), Network Equipment Provider (NEP), Virtualization Infrastructure Service Provider (VISP), Data Centre Service Provider (DCSP), NFVI (Network Functions Virtualization Infrastructure) Supplier and Hardware Supplier.
Depending on actual scenarios:
  • Each role can be played by one or more organizations simultaneously;
  • An organization can play one or several roles simultaneously (for example, a company can play CSP and NOP roles simultaneously).
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Management models for network slicing

Different management models can be used in the context of network slicing.
1) Network Slice as a Service (NSaaS): NSaaS can be offered by a CSP to its CSC in the form of a communication service. This service allows CSC to use and optionally manage the network slice instance. In turn, this CSC can play the role of CSP and offer their own services (e.g. communication services) on top of the network slice instance. The MNSI (Managed Network Slice Instance) in the figure represents a network slice instance and CS represents a communication service.
2) Network Slices as NOP internals: network slices are not part of the CSP service offering and hence are not visible to CSCs. However, the NOP, to provide support to communication services, may decide to deploy network slices, e.g. for internal network optimization purposes.
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Management architecture

SA5 recognizes the need for automation of management by introducing new management functions such as a communication service management function (CSMF), network slice management function (NSMF) and a network slice subnet management function (NSSMF) to provide an appropriate abstraction level for automation.
The 3GPP SA5 management architecture will adopt a service-oriented management architecture which is described as interaction between management service consumer and management service provider. For example, a management service consumer can request operations from management service providers on fault supervision service, performance management service, provisioning service and notification service, etc.

Network Resource Model (NRM) for 5G networks and network slicing

To support management and orchestration of 5G networks, the Network Resource Model (NRM) representing the manageable aspects of 5G networks needs to be defined, according to 5G network specifications from other 3GPP working groups as well as considering requirements from 5G management architecture and operations.
The 5G NRM specifications family includes 4 specifications: TS 28.540 and TS 28.541 for NRM of NR and NG-RAN, TS 28.542and TS 28.543 for NRM of 5G core network.

According to content categorization, 5G NRM specifications can be divided into 3 parts:
  • Requirements, also known as stage 1,
  • Information Model definitions also known as stage 2, and
  • Solution Set definitions also known as stage 3.
Identified in the specifications of 5G NRM requirements (TS 28.540 and TS 28.542), the NRM of 5G network comprises NRM for the 5G core network (5GC) and NRM for 5G radio access network (i.e. NR and NG-RAN). The 5GC NRM definitions support management of 5GC Network Functions, respective interfaces as well as AMF Set and AMF Region. The NR and NG-RAN NRM definitions cover various 5G radio networks connectivity options (standalone and non-standalone radio node deployment options) and architectural options (NR nodes with or without functional split).
The 5G Information Model definitions specify the semantics and behavior of information object class attributes and relations visible on the 5G management interfaces, in a protocol and technology neutral way (UML as protocol-neutral language is used). The 5G Information Model is defined according to 5GC, NR and NG-RAN specifications. For example, in 3GPP TS 38.401, the NR node (gNB) is defined to support three functional split options (i.e. non-split option, two split option with CU and DU, three split option with CU-CP, CU-UP and DU), so in the NR NRM Information Model, corresponding Information Object Class (IOC) is defined for each network function of gNB specified, and different UML diagrams show the relationship of each gNB split option respectively. Further, in the 5G Information Model definitions, the existing Generic NRM Information Service specification (TS 28.622) is referenced to inherit the attributes of generic information object classes, and the existing EPC NRM Information Service specification (TS 28.708) is referenced for 5GS / EPS interworking relationships description.

Finally, NRM Solution Set definitions map the Information Model definitions to a specific protocol definition used for implementations. According to recommendation from TR 32.866 (Study on RESTful based Solution Set), JSON is expected to be chosen as data modelling language to describe one 5G NRM Solution Set.

Fault Supervision of 5G networks and network slicing

Fault Supervision is one of the fundamental functions for the management of a 5G network and its communication services. For the fault supervision of 5G networks and network slicing, the following 3GPP TSs are being specified:
1) TS 28.545 “Management and orchestration of networks and network slicing; Fault Supervision (FS); Stage 1”, which includes:
  • The use cases and requirements for fault supervision of 5G networks and network slicing.
  • The definitions of fault supervision related management services (e.g. NetworkSliceAlarmAcknowledgement, NetworkSliceAlarmListReading, NetworkSliceAlarmClearance, NetworkSliceAlarmNotification, NetworkSliceAlarmSubscription, etc.)
2) TS 28.546 “Management and orchestration of networks and network slicing; Fault Supervision (FS); Stage 2 and stage 3”, which includes the definition of:
  • Interfaces of the fault supervision related management services; (Stage 2)
  • Notifications; (Stage 2)
  • Alarm related information models (e.g. alarmInformation, alarmList, etc.); (Stage 2)
  • Solution set(s) (e.g. RESTful HTTP-based solution set for Fault Supervison); (Stage 3)
  • New event types and probable causes if necessary. 

Assurance data and Performance Management for 5G networks and network slicing

The 5G network is designed to accommodate continuously fast increasing data traffic demand, and in addition, to support new services such as IoT, cloud-based services, industrial control, autonomous driving, mission critical communications, etc. Such services may have their own performance criteria, such as massive connectivity, extreme broadband, ultra-low latency and ultra-high reliability.
The performance data of the 5G networks and NFs (Network Functions) are fundamental for network monitoring, assessment, analysis, optimization and assurance. For the services with ultra-low latency and ultra-high reliability requirements, any faults or performance issues in the networks can cause service failure which may result in serious personal and property losses. Therefore, it is necessary to be able to collect the performance data in real-time (e.g., by performance data streaming), so that the analytic applications (e.g., network optimization, SON, etc.) could use the performance data to detect any network performance problems, predict the potential issues and take appropriate actions quickly or even in advance.
For network slicing, the communication services are provided on top of the end-to-end network slice instances, so the performance needs to be monitored from end-to-end point of view.
The end to end performance data of 5G networks (including sub-networks), NSIs (Network Slice Instances) and NSSIs (Network Slice Subnet Instances) are vital for operators to know whether they can meet the communication service requirement.
The performance data may be used by various kinds of consumers, such as network operator, SON applications, network optimization applications, network analytics applications, performance assurance applications, etc. To facilitate various consumers to get their required performance data, the following items are being pursued by this WI:
  • A service based PM framework and a list of PM services as described in the table below:  

Management service name

Management service description

NF measurement job control serviceThe management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) for the NF(s).
NF measurement job information serviceThe management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) for the NF(s).
NF performance data file reporting ServiceThe management service for reporting the NF performance data file.
NF performance data streaming serviceThe management service for providing streaming of NF performance data.
NSSI measurement job control serviceThe management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) for the NSSI(s).
NSSI measurement job information serviceThe management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) for the NSSI(s).
NSSI performance data file reporting ServiceThe management service for reporting the NSSI performance data file.
NSSI performance data streaming serviceThe management service for providing streaming of NSSI performance data.
NSI measurement job control serviceThe management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) for the NSI(s).
NSI measurement job information serviceThe management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) for the NSI(s).
NSI performance data file reporting ServiceThe management service for reporting the NSI performance data file.
NSI performance data streaming serviceThe management service for providing streaming of NSI performance data.
Network measurement job control serviceThe management service for creating and terminating the measurement job(s) to collect the network performance data that is not specific to network slicing.
Network measurement job information serviceThe management service for querying the information of the measurement job(s) to collect the network performance data that is not specific to network slicing.
Network performance data file reporting serviceThe management service for reporting the network performance data file that is not specific to network slicing.
Network performance data streaming serviceThe management service for providing network performance data streaming that is not specific to network slicing.
  • Performance measurements (including the data that can be used for performance assurance) for 3GPP NFs;
  • End to end KPIs, performance measurements (including the data that can be used for performance assurance) for NSIs, NSSIs and networks (where the performance data is not specific to network slicing).

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